▼翻訳は下 To date the results of his efforts are a thousand farms with shelter belts and with millions of dollars' worth of pine plantations 170 miles south of Perth. Peaty told many audiences of Australian farmers: "If each of you plants trees to slow the wind， your ground， your water， your whole environment will be brought back into balance. Flocks of birds， long since departed， will return. "That Peaty's vision is not utopian is proved in a moving tribute written by Jean Giono， one of southern France's most lyrical writers， to a simple French peasant， Elzeard Bouffier. From pail after pail of collected acorns and seeds， Bouffier is credited with having single-handedly planted a forest of a million trees， covering a vast expanse of previously unparal-leled desolation， now a thriving countryside within a splendid French national preserve. If only a million people in this or any country were each to plant a single tree， the feat could be duplicated， and the number would increase exponentially as more people planted more trees. Only thus， and by bringing new life to a remineralized soil， can we hope to save what passes for civilization， and recover the bounty of life on this planet， the secret to which， as is patent， lives in its soil. Our problem is with time. If Hamaker is right， we have let slip by the chance we had to plant the trees in time to save the planet from disaster. But one last hope remains: microscopic in size but gargantuan in power， believed to be the oldest， hardiest plant form on the planet， a survivor， through billions of years， of all the hazards， imaginable and unimagina-He， dished up by an indifferent fate: the one-celled blue-green algae， known as Aphanizomenon (actually not a plant but what is now recog-nized as a bacterium). Proliferating at great speed， the algae could， according to Daryl J. Kollman， scientist， author， and educator， dispose of surplus CO2 and feed the world. Grown in man-made ponds all across the world， especially in such vast spaces as the Sahara Desert， the metabolizing biomass could suck up vast quantities of CO2. No plant， says Kollman， grows fast enough to create the biomass to get us out of trouble. To propagate blue-green algae all one needs is a pond， a pond liner， more water， and rock dust as a nutrient—all infinitely easier， cheaper， and more effective than any of the climatologists' far-out suggestions. The water does not have to flow; it needs merely to be stirred so that the in fusion of algae all get exposed to the sun. Proliferating， the algae draw in CO2 from the air. Harvested， says Kollman， the algae are the world's best nutrient， sufficient with their protein to save the lives of millions of slaving Africans and Third World peoples. And if， for any reason， a batch goes bad， it makes first-rate organic fertilizer.
Ancient organisms， algae look like bacteria but have cell walls and a far greater capacity to photosynthesize， making them the most efficient chlorophyll-producing organism in existence. Mono-cellular， each indi-vidual is self-sufficient. Having no circulatory systems as do plants， they are mostly microscopic， though some grow into giant seaweeds， hundreds of feet long. To Kollman， the blue-green， standing as it does at the very bottom of the food chain， is more basic to biological life than even the regular bacterium. For billions of years it has dwelt in every drop of water and every inch of fertile soil， transforming minerals， gases， and sunlight into viable foods for bacterial， plant， and animal life， responsible directly for about 80 percent of the world's supply of food. A few years ago， Kollman came across a supply—almost inexhausti-ble—of blue-green algae in Klamath Lake in southern Oregon， near the quiet lumber town of Klamath Falls. The lake is 130 square miles in area， the only known accessible and unpolluted source of such algae growing wild and in abundance. Geologists estimate that for the past ten thou-sand years the lake has had an annual procreation rate of 200 million pounds of algae， a rate that can persist indefinitely without disturbing the lake's pristine and healthy ecology. Entirely surrounded by the beautiful Cascade Mountains， with Mount Shasta in full view some fifty miles to the south， the secret to the lake's bonanza lies in its location， a natural trap for the nutrient makings of life.
Rain and snow that fall on four thousand square miles of rich volcanic soil of the Oregon Cascades wash into Klamath Lake millions of tons of nutrient topsoil. All the required minerals are carried down from the glaciers， available for hungry algae to turn， with their strong supply of chlorophyll and with the power of the sun， into chelated or-ganic molecules of super food—food to feed a starving planet. To add to this nutrient supply， much of the algae have accumulated through millennia into rich sediment， which now covers the bottom of the lake to a depth of thirty-five feet. The top one inch of this sediment alone， according to Kollman， could support a massive algae bloom for sixty years to come without any new nutrients entering the lake. And its waters are unpolluted. In an area devoid of industry， town sewage， or the chemical toxins of agriculture， the rivers and streams that enter the lake are pure， clean， and potable， with little recreational boating where algae carpet the surface. Kollman came to his discovery by a circuitous route. A teacher and administrator with a master's in Science Education from Harvard， he was trained in Italy in the Montessori method. Over a twelve-year span of teaching young children he noticed a steady increase in problems normally classified as "learning disabilities，" problems he soon recognized as being associated with the diminishing quality of the children's diet. Undernourished or poorly nourished children were not capable of absorbing information， and therefore， of learning. We came upon Kollman in a Los Angeles suburb in the house of one of his supporters， just as he was beginning his campaign to run for President of the United States on an ecological platform. Tall， balding， quict-spoken， in his late forties， with a deeply lined face that easily breaks into a pleasing smile， Kollman explained: "I knew that concentration was the refirst requirement for learning， and that it was getting more and more difficult for children to do so. If I wanted to be successful in the clssroom， something had to be done to help the children's diets. An extensive computer search through existing literature revealed that micro-algae were being used in Japan and other Far Eastern countries for the remediation of poor educational performance in schoolchildren." In 1976 Kollman and an associate became the first researchers in the United States to grow systematically and experiment with spirulina and chlorella forms of green algae now widely marketed. But Kollman wasn't marketed: he didn't like the idea of having to grow the algae artificially in man made ponds; and the cellulose cell wall of chlorella made it difficult In simulate. The discovery of algae growing wild in one of the world's
richest natural "nutrient traps，" completely free of artificial influences， answered for him both problems: the Aphanizomenon's cell wall was found to be composed of a substance nearly identical to glycogen， mak-ing the algae 95 percent assimilable by humans. And the algae contain all the trace elements essential to animal and man. To get the blue-green distributed even more widely， a system was devised for harvesting the crop during the summer， then freeze-drying it to protect the beneficial enzymes and heat-sensitive vitamins， guarantee-ing both the algae's nutritional value and the lake's ecological integrity. The result is a 100 percent food substance， 69 percent protein， with all the trace elements in a colloidal state， readily assimilable， the highest source， according to Kollman， of natural vegetable protein and chloro-phyll in the world， containing all the essential amino acids in perfect balance， almost exactly as in the human body. As a food—in powder or capsule—he says it has no peer: one gram of blue-green algae has tested out as containing about 1，400 micrograms of beta carotene. To obtain that much beta carotene one would have to consume 14 grams of liver， 70 grams of carrots， 14 eggs， or 5 quarts of milk. It is also a rich source of neuro-peptides， quickly absorbed to nour-ish both the nervous system and the brain. Kollman is said by his supporters to have been driven to his algae and to his running for the presidency by an unusual mixture of humanitarian spirit， scientific ingenuity， and social vision， a combination with which he seeks to launch a revolution in American health and in American I iutrition. In Fallbrook， California， between Orange County and San Diego， Daryl Kollman has been building， at a cost of between half a million and a million dollars， a huge double pyramid， a hundred feet on four sides， buried fifty-five feet in the ground and rising fifty-five feet above it. Divided into ten stories， the pyramid's purpose is to grow enough food for a large community to feed itself and have a surplus to distribute. Almost any plant can be grown in trays， fertilized with rainwater， rock dust， and blue-green algae， one gram of which contains upward of five million microorganisms. The upper pyramid， glazed with Plexiglas， allows for the passage of solar and cosmic forces; the lower pyramid absorbs geomagnetic energy from the earth. Some other mysterious energy inhibits the growth of mold or yeast， despite the great quantity of water that passes through the structure. Kollman also plans to produce small pine trees that people can buy and transplant. Other sites for double pyramids are Sedona， Santa Fe， and Albuquerque.
To heat his pyramids in colder climates， Kollman envisages a machine invented by a friend in New Mexico that burns wastepaper and wood， leaving nothing but a trace of water vapor and carbon dioxide， the latter， in the enclosed pyramid， serving as extra food for the plants. A second pyramid in Fallbrook is planned as a restaurant， general store， and bakery. It will also serve as a communication center to spread the word. "We have to train hundreds of thousands of people to live in such communities，" says Kollman， "and we have very little time in which to do so. "At dinner with Eddie Albert， of Green Acres fame， also a devoted supporter of organic farming and of authentic ecological revival， Ka-man expanded on his program: "The first order of business is to get the people of this country healthy. That means cleaning up our agriculture， and restoring health to the soil. If we don't act now to clean up the environment， we may lose forever the opportunity to do so. We are close to the upper limits of reversibility. And the United States is the only country with the power and the influence to lead the world into a massive environmental and economic cleanup. So far， we've left it to the 'ex-perts，' and you can see the mess they've made. They've left us 375，000 toxic waste sites to be cleaned up in the U.S.A. alone. "To FDR's Four Freedoms we must add the freedom to have clean air， clean water， vital food， and the right to pass on to our children a world that's fit to live in. This earth can support a lot more people. With a little bit of intelligence， we can support them all in a way we've never seen before. There's glacial till that's thirty to fifty feet thick in North and South Dakota; we can grind it up and move it into Iowa， Illinois， Kansas， Nebraska， Colorado， Texas， and Wyoming for vital soil and vital crops. Meanwhile， until we grow more healthy food， the algae can bring us all the elements we lack for a revitalized， enduring health. The blue-green algae is a gift from heaven. But it may be the last we get if we don't shape up. We can talk about the future， and visualize the future， but if we want that future we must act."
CHAPTER 19 Purified with Fire IT TOOK THE Chernobyl disaster to arouse the Soviets to some action， belated， defensive， and far from what was needed. In the rest of Europe， alarm at the fallout consequences mo-mentarily took people's minds， confused and helpless， off the problem of their dying trees. Not so in America， where the plague was spreading. Satellite photos —taken five hundred miles above the earth—revealed panoramic shots of mountains dotted with dead and dying trees. These were supple-mented by earth-based closeups of yellowing needles and lifeless branches. To struggle with the problem， an international five-day con-ference was convened at the end of October 1987 on the shores of Lake Champlain， in the threatened Green Mountain State's city of Burling-ton. Formally entitled "The Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Spruce and. Fir Trees in the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany，" the conference brought together a large number of forestry experts and other scientists from both countries who were studying the health of trees from space， or the condition of their roots in the soil， and everything else in between. The general consensus admitted， as it had for nearly a decade， that American and German trees were rapidly dying for a series of reasons as complex as they were mystifying， apparently from both man-made and natural causes. But that， as the New York Times put it in a summary article， was about the extent of the agreement. It took Dr. Viktor Kovda， director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci-ences' Institute of Soil Science， to turn attention away from what he considered more than an ample discussion of the industrial pollution of